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01/08/2002 | Las 100 empresas criminales principales de la década pasada

De Nuestra Redacción

Todos los años, las principales revistas comerciales publican los resultados de su investigación de los grandes negocios en América.

 

Así podrá acceder al Fortune 500, Forbes 400, Los 100 Platinum de Forbes, los 800 Internacionales -- entre otros rankings.

Estas listas alinean a las grandes corporaciones por sus ventas, activos, beneficios y cuota de mercado. El punto de estos estudios es simple -- identificar y glorificar las corporaciones más grandes y más provechosas.

El objetivo de la lista contenida en este informe, LAS 100 EMPRESAS CRIMINALES PRINCIPALES DE LA DECADA PASADA-- es centrar la atención pública en la ola de crímenes corporativos que ha inundado oficinas legales en todo el país.

Éste es el rincón oscuro del mercado; ni los políticos ni los medios desarrollan su análisis y se le presta muy poca atención.

Para compilar a los principales 100 criminales corporativos de los años 90, utilizamos la más ajustada y conservadora de las definiciones -- " todas las corporaciones que se han encontrado culpables o fueron criminalmente sancionadas".

Los 100 criminales corporativos se ordenaron en 14 categorías según el crimen: Ambiental (38), anticompetitivo (20), fraude (13), finanzas de la campaña (7), alimento y droga (6), crímenes financieros (4), declaraciones falsas (3), exportaciones ilegales (3), boicot ilegal (1), muerte de trabajador (1), soborno (1), obstrucción de la justicia (1) corrupción pública (1), y evasión fiscal (1).

No intentamos determinar ni comparar el daño realizado por estos criminales corporativos o por otros.

Hay millones de americanos a quienes les importa la moralidad en el mercado.

Pero pocos americanos saben que cuando compran acciones de Exxon, o cuando llenan su tanque de combustible en una gasolinera de Exxon, están de hecho apoyando una corporación criminal reincidente. Y pocos americanos saben que cuando toman un paseo en un crucero propiedad de Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, están utilizando una nave de una corporación criminal reincidente.

Seis corporaciones que forman parte de la lista de los principales 100 criminales corporativos eran ya compañías criminales reincidentes durante los años 90.

Además de Exxon y de Royal Caribbean, Rockwell International, Warner-Lambert, Teledyne, y United Technologies cada una fue culpable de más de un crimen durante los años 90.
1) F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $500 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 21(1), May 24, 1999

2) Daiwa Bank Ltd.
Type of Crime: Financial
Criminal Fine: $340 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 9(3), March 4, 1996

3) BASF Aktiengesellschaft
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $225 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 21(1), May 24, 1999

4) SGL Carbon Aktiengesellschaft (SGL AG)
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $135 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 19(4), May 10, 1999

5) Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $125 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 11(3), March 18, 1991

6) UCAR International, Inc.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $110 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 15(6), April 13, 1998

7) Archer Daniels Midland
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $100 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 40(1), October 21, 1996

8)(tie) Banker's Trust
Type of Crime: Financial
Criminal Fine: $60 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 11(1), March 15, 1999

9)(tie) Sears Bankruptcy Recovery Management Services
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $60 million
13 Corporate Crime Reporter 7(1), February 15, 1999

10) Haarman & Reimer Corp.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal fine: $50 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 5(4), February 3, 1997

11) Louisiana-Pacific Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $37 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 23(1), June 8, 1998

12) Hoechst AG
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $36 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 19(6), May 10, 1999

13) Damon Clinical Laboratories, Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $35.2 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 39(6), October 14, 1996

14) C.R. Bard Inc.
Type of Crime: Food and drug
Criminal Fine: $30.9 million
7 Corporate Crime Reporter 41(1), October 25, 1993

15) Genentech Inc.
Type of Crime: Food and drug
Criminal Fine: $30 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 16(3), April 19, 1999

16) Nippon Gohsei
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $21 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(3), July 19, 1999

17)(tie) Pfizer Inc.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $20 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(1), July 26, 1999

18)(tie) Summitville Consolidated Mining Co. Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $20 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 20(3) May 20, 1996

19)(tie) Lucas Western Inc.
Type of Crime: False Statements
Criminal Fine: $18.5 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 4(6), January 30, 1995

20)(tie) Rockwell International Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $18.5 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 13(4), March 30, 1992

21) Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $18 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(4), July 26, 1999

22) Teledyne Industries Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $17.5 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 39(9), October 12, 1992

23) Northrop
Type of Crime: False statements
Criminal Fine: $17 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 9(1), March 5, 1990

24) Litton Applied Technology Division (ATD) and Litton Systems Canada (LSL)
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $16.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 27(1), July 5, 1999

25) Iroquois Pipeline Operating Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $15 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 22(1), June 3, 1996

26) Eastman Chemical Company
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $11 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 38(5), October 5, 1998

27) Copley Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Type of Crime: Food and drug
Criminal Fine: $10.65 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 22(1), June 2, 1997

28) Lonza AG
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $10.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 10(1), March 8, 1999

29) Kimberly Home Health Care Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $10.08 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(6), July 26, 1999

30)(tie) Ajinomoto Co. Inc.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $10 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 40(1), October 21, 1996

31)(tie) Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI)
Type of Crime: Financial
Criminal Fine: $10 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 3(1) January 22, 1990

32)(tie) Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $10 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 40(1), October 21, 1996

33)(tie) Warner-Lambert Company
Type of Crime: Food and drug
Criminal Fine: $10 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 46(1), December 4, 1995

34) General Electric
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $9.5 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(7), July 27, 1992

35)(tie) Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $9 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 23(3), June 8, 1998

36)(tie) Showa Denko Carbon
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $9 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 19(4), May 10, 1999

37) IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd.
Type of Crime: Illegal exports
Criminal Fine: $8.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 32(1), August 10, 1998

38) Empire Sanitary Landfill Inc.
Type of crime: Campaign finance
Criminal fine: $8 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 39(3), October 13, 1997

39)(tie) Colonial Pipeline Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $7 million
13 Corporate Crime Reporter 9(3), March 1, 1999

40)(tie) Eklof Marine Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $7 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 37(4), September 29, 1997

41)(tie) Chevron
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $6.5 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter, 22(1), June 1, 1992

42)(tie) Rockwell International Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $6.5 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 15(4), April 15, 1996

43) Tokai Carbon Ltd. Co.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $6 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 19(4), May 10, 1999

44)(tie) Allied Clinical Laboratories, Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $5 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 45(1), November 25, 1996

45)(tie) Northern Brands International Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $5 million
13 Corporate Crime Reporter 1(1), January 4,1999

46)(tie) Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation
Type of Crime: Obstruction of justice
Criminal Fine: $5 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 2(3), January 16, 1995

47)(tie) Unisys
Type of Crime: Bribery
Criminal Fine: $5 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 35(11), September 16, 1991

48)(tie) Georgia Pacific Corporation
Type of Crime: Tax evasion
Criminal Fine: $5 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 38(8), October 7, 1991

49) Kanzaki Specialty Papers Inc.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $4.5 million
8 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(4), July 18, 1994

50) ConAgra Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $4.4 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 12(1), March 24, 1997

51) Ryland Mortgage Company
Type of Crime: Financial
Criminal Fine: $4.2 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 32(1), August 10, 1998

52)(tie) Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $4 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(1), July 20, 1998

53)(tie) Borden Inc.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $4 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 11(9), March 19, 1990

54)(tie) Dexter Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $4 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 35(6), September 14, 1992

55)(tie) Southland Corporation
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $4 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 11(9), March 19, 1990

56)(tie) Teledyne Industries Inc.
Type of Crime: Illegal exports
Criminal Fine: $4 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 5(3), February 6, 1995

57)(tie) Tyson Foods Inc.
Type of Crime: Public corruption
Criminal Fine: $4 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 1(3), January 5, 1998

58)(tie) Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA)
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3.75 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(6), July 22, 1991

59)(tie) Costain Coal Inc.
Type of Crime: Worker Death
Criminal Fine: $3.75 million
7 Corporate Crime Reporter 9(10), March 1, 1993

60)(tie) United States Sugar Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3.75 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 27(4), December 9, 1991

61) Saybolt, Inc., Saybolt North America
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3.4 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 33(1), August 17, 1998

62)(tie) Bristol-Myers Squibb
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 18(3), May 4, 1992

63)(tie) Chemical Waste Management Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 40(5), October 19, 1992

64)(tie) Ketchikan Pulp Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 13(1), April 3, 1995

65)(tie) United Technologies Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 21(1), May 27, 1991

66)(tie) Warner-Lambert Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 37(3), September 29, 1997

67)(tie) Arizona Chemical Co. Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2.5 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 39(5), October 14, 1996

68)(tie) Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail)
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2.5 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(1), July 31, 1995

69) International Paper
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2.2 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 31(7), August 5, 1991

70)(tie) Consolidated Edison Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2 million
8 Corporate Crime Reporter 46(5), November 28, 1994

71)(tie) Crop Growers Corporation
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal fine: $2 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 4(3), January 27, 1997

72)(tie) E-Systems Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $2 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 33, September 3, 1990

73)(tie) HAL Beheer BV
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 39(4), October 12, 1998

74)(tie) John Morrell and Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 6(3), February 12, 1996

75)(tie) United Technologies Corporation
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $2 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 34(4), September 7, 1992

76) Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi International Corporation
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $1.8 million
8 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(4), July 18, 1994

77)(tie) Blue Shield of California
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 18(3), May 6, 1996

78)(tie) Browning-Ferris Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 23(3), June 8, 1998

79)(tie) Odwalla Inc.
Type of Crime: Food and drug
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(1), July 27, 1998

80)(tie) Teledyne Inc.
Type of Crime: False statements
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
7 Corporate Crime Reporter 34(12), September 6, 1993

81)(tie) Unocal Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
8 Corporate Crime Reporter 12(8), March 21, 1994

82)(tie) Doyon Drilling Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $1 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 21(1), May 25, 1998

83)(tie) Eastman Kodak
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $1 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 14(1), April 9, 1990

84)(tie) Case Corporation
Type of Crime: Illegal exports
Criminal Fine: $1 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 22(4), June 3, 1996

85) Marathon Oil
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $900,000
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 22(5), June 3, 1991

86) Hyundai Motor Company
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $600,000
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 48(3), December 18, 1995

87)(tie) Baxter International Inc.
Type of Crime: Illegal Boycott
Criminal Fine: $500,000
7 Corporate Crime Reporter 13(7) , March 29, 1993

88)(tie) Bethship-Sabine Yard
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $500,000
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 26(4), July 3, 1995

89(tie) Palm Beach Cruises
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $500,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(4), July 26, 1999

90)(tie) Princess Cruises Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $500,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(4), July 26, 1999

91)(tie) Cerestar Bioproducts BV
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $400,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 28(3), June 29, 1998

92)(tie) Sun-Land Products of California
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $400,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 33(1), August 17, 1998

93)(tie) American Cyanamid
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $250,000
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 46(5), December 3, 1990

94)(tie) Korean Air Lines
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $250,000
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 47(1), December 11, 1995

95)(tie) Regency Cruises Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $250,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(4), July 26, 1999

96)(tie) Adolph Coors Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $200,000
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 43(3), November 12, 1990

97)(tie) Andrew and Williamson Sales Co.
Type of crime: Food and drug
Criminal fine: $200,000
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 44(4), November 17, 1997

98)(tie) Daewoo International (America) Corporation
Type of Fine: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $200,000
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 13(3), April 1, 1996

99)(tie) Exxon Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $200,000
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 12(1), March 25, 1991

100) Samsung America Inc.
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $150,000
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 6(5), February 12, 1996

Offnews.info (Argentina)

 


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19/07/2002|
19/07/2002|

ver + notas
 
Center for the Study of the Presidency
Freedom House